Additionally, 1,300 non-native species exist throughout the state. Initially open land will be colonized by species such as eastern red cedar, tuliptree, aspens, or red maple that grow well in the high light conditions of open fields. The timber industry remains an important part of Pennsylvania's economy, totaling nearly $5 billion per year and providing about 100,000 jobs. Charcoal making was another forest industry that thrived before the discovery of coal as a fuel. Part to full shade. There are always opportunities to help, regardless of your level of expertise. Forests and the trees and other species that comprise them are constantly changing systems. It is one of the most valuable timber trees, and often planted for ornamental purposes in open spaces. Width: 1-2'. American sycamore 3. Clearcutting was frequently followed by fires; started by sparks from the railroads, the fires burned rapidly and fiercely through the slash left after logging. We are an all volunteer, member based, non-profit organization. You can support us by becoming a member, making a donation, and/or volunteering . As the ice receded, species that had found refuge farther south gradually returned. How to identify trees Identification Keys, GlossaryAppendixTree ListsNative Trees that are Important Food Sources for Moths and ButterfliesSmall to Moderate-size Native Trees with Conspicuous FlowersNative Trees with Edible FruitsEndangered, Threatened, and Rare Trees of PennsylvaniaNative Early Successional Trees (sun-loving)Native Trees of Riparian ForestsNative Wetland TreesTrees that are at or Near the Southern Limit of their Natural Range in PennsylvaniaTrees that are at or Near the Northern Limit of their Natural Range in PennsylvaniaTrees that are at or Near the Eastern Limit of their Natural Range in PennsylvaniaPennsylvania Trees Listed by Family, Chapter 2. Before 1910, American chestnut was an important component of Pennsylvania's oak forests, but the accidental introduction of chestnut blight in New York City in 1904 resulted in chestnut's shift from widespread canopy dominant to minor status within just a few decades. Pennsylvania is home to a wide variety of trees, some living no where in the world, not to mention some of the oldest and longest living in the world. Trees of Pennsylvania All 40; Taxonomy; 30 Flowering Plants Subphylum Angiospermae; 10 Conifers Class Pinopsida; Search. Early accounts of the landscape of the interior of Pennsylvania contain frequent references like this descriptive passage by Fortescue Cumming while crossing Tuscarora Mountain in 1807, "view to the westward, though extensive, was cheerless and gloomy, over a broken and mountainous or rather hilly country, covered with forests, chiefly of the dark and sombre pine . Hemlock logs were cut and the bark stripped off and hauled to tanneries located in many parts of the state near the source of bark. Welcome to the Pennsylvania A-Z native species list. Sixty-two distinct tree-dominated natural community types have been described for Pennsylvania. The Value of TreesThe ecological importance of forests and trees to the well-being of the state is enormous. While those are the most common trees of Pennsylvania there are dozens of trees you will likely see in a walk in the woods. Deer have consumed the lower layers of vegetation including tree seedlings and saplings, shrubs, and herbaceous species. Fall 2020 Photo Contest Winner. Fagus grandifolia. This forest type is characterized by a mixture of hardwoods and conifers and usually contains beech, birch, sugar maple, hemlock, and white pine in the canopy. PH: 814-443-2991, Nate Shumaker Native PA Species TREES for Stormwater Management in Erie County. Native vs. introduced species—Native species are defined as those that were here before the first Europeans arrived. Audubon Pennsylvania . One hundred and thirty five species of trees are considered native to Pennsylvania. It also occurs further south on north-facing slopes and cool, moist ravines. Others, such as American holly, sweetbay magnolia, southern red oak, willow oak, chinquapin, and short-needle pine, just reach the state from the south. Congratulations to Pete … Trees are also beautiful and restful to look at, conveying a sense of pleasure and well-being. Only a few fragments remain of the original forest. On drier upper slopes and ridge tops throughout the central Pennsylvania, oak forests are dominated by white, black, and chestnut oak are common. Paw Paws are taprooted plants that transplant most successfully while dormant or nearly so. Some of the same trees that are native to Delaware can also be found in Pennsylvania, as we are close neighbors. Never needs cutting unless to tidy. Research is ongoing to understand the cause(s) of a widespread dieback of sugar maple centered in Pennsylvania. Rarity occurs for several reasons; some native Pennsylvania trees such as balsam fir, tamarack, and black spruce are northern species that are at their southern limit of range in Pennsylvania. northern red oak 1. The chestnut blight fungus, first discovered in New York City in 1904, swept through Pennsylvania reducing what had previously been our most abundant tree to minor status. Swamp forests along Lake Erie are the only locations where pumpkin ash occurs. An iron furnace required 20,000-35,000 acres of forest to support it on a sustainable basis. Authoritative, encyclopedic, lavishly illustrated guide to the trees of the state and region—from the Morris Arboretum, the official arboretum of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. Charcoal making utilized small trees and could be done on a 25-year rotation in most areas. Trees dominate the landscape and provide habitat structure for a multitude of other plants, animals, invertebrates, and microorganisms, thereby protecting biological diversity. Alluvium is typically made up of a variety of materials, including fine particles Pennsylvania is host to one national forest; the Allegheny National Forest contains just over half a million acres. Red maple is a moderately fast-growing Pennsylvania-native shade tree best known for its brilliant red (sometimes red/gold) fall foliage. Some of them such as Norway maple, tree-of-heaven, and empress-tree have seriously impacted remnant forests in urban and suburban areas. Cutting Down the TreesAs European settlers claimed the land, taming the wilderness meant cutting down trees and eradicating some forest wildlife, especially large predators, in order to make room for farms, towns, and villages and to assure the safety of pioneer families and their livestock. Gaining in popularity, Pawpaws have the largest fruits of native fruit trees. Platanus occidentalis . The herbaceous layer is very rich and diverse. Descriptions, Illustrations, and Distribution Maps, Alder — Apple — Aralia — Arbor-vitae — Ash — Atlantic white-cedar — Basswood — Beebee tree — Beech — Birch — Blackgum — Blackhaw — Bladdernut — Buckeye — Catalpa — Cherry — Chestnut — Chinese toon-tree — Corktree — Crabapple — Dogwood — Douglas-fir — Elm — Empress-tree — Fir — Fringetree — Ginkgo — Golden rain-tree — Hackberry — Hawthorn — Hemlock — Hickory — Holly — Honey-locust — Hoptree — Hop-hornbeam — Hornbeam — Juniper — Katsura-tree — Kentucky coffee-tree — Larch — Locust — Magnolia — Maple — Mimosa — Mountain-ash — Mulberry — Oak — Osage-orange — Pagoda-tree — Paper-mulberry — Pawpaw — Pear — Persimmon — Photinia — Pine — Plum — Poplar — Prickly-ash — Redbud — Sapphire-berry — Sassafras — Shadbush — Silverbell — Snowbell — Sourwood — Spruce — Sumac — Sweetgum — Sycamore — Tree-of-heaven — Tuliptree — Walnut — Willow — Witch-hazell, Chapter 4. The most recent invader, hemlock woolly adelgid, is killing our state tree the Canadian hemlock in southern and eastern parts of the state. The rarest native species are designated by the Pennsylvania Natural Diversity Inventory (PNDI) and protected under the Wild Plant Conservation Act. At the turn of the 21st century, about 1,300 species of non-native plants existed in Pennsylvania outside of … Pennsylvania's location spanning 40 degrees - 42 degrees north latitude and its varied terrain support 108 species of native trees and many other introduced from Europe and Asia. 2004 | 416 pages | Cloth $59.95 Botany / Ecology/Environmental Studies View main book page, Chapter 1. Pennsylvania Sedge (Carex pensylvanica) - PART TO FULL SHADE. Shale barrens and limestone barrens of the Ridge and Valley physiographic province contain drought-tolerant species including red cedar, Virginia pine, table mountain pine, yellow oak, post oak, hackberry, and sumac. Pennsylvania, with its unique geographical position, has 102 kinds of trees native to the State, although there are numerous introduced species growing and thriving in this latitude and climate. By far, however, the largest proportion (70 percent) of forested land in the state is privately owned. Classified as threatened are American holly, umbrella magnolia, sweetbay magnolia, and common hop-tree. Four other tree species, short-leaf pine and three hawthorns, have been recommended for listing but a specific status has not yet been determined. Beech bark disease, which appeared in Nova Scotia about 1920, is still spreading across the northern half of the state reducing beech to groves of young sapling-size root shoots. Have you wondered what kind they are? Mar 16, 2018 - Explore Diana Silvestri's board "Native Plants Pennsylvania", followed by 122 people on Pinterest. The “white oak group” includes all oaks without bristle-tipped lobes and acorns that ripen in one season. You are being redirected to the DCNR eLibrary. Big Trees of Pennsylvania Register. Plants Native to Western Pennsylvania. Quercus rubra. Pennsylvania native trees, shrubs, vines, herbaceous material, seeds. Abandoned farmland, and cleared or timbered land will become forested again through a natural process known as secondary succession. In addition to 2.1 million acres of state forests, Pennsylvania's publicly owned forest lands include another 277,000 acres in 116 state parks. Sumac fruit is included, Article and photo courtesy of Karen Smith. The piles of logs were covered with earth and burned to produce charcoal that was then hauled by wagon to the iron works. Major Forest TypesPennsylvania's climate, rainfall, and soil fertility support forest growth throughout most of the state with the exception of areas that are too wet or too rocky. Oak and other hardwoods are also important. We consider the flora present at the time Europeans arrived in North America as the species native to the eastern United States. Quercus alba. white oak 2. The Forest TodayDespite dire predictions of Rothrock and others, Pennsylvania's forests did recover in the years following the great clearcut. Serpentinite rock, which occurs in a band of outcrops stretching across southern Delaware, Chester, and Lancaster counties, supports forests of pitch pine or Virginia pine, coupled with red cedar, scrub oak, blackjack oak and sassafras. The northern hardwood forest occupies the northern third of the state and extends south at high elevations along the Allegheny Front. Elders of the Lenni Lenape tribe have certified the tree has been venerated for 480+ years. We have included the various common names associated with each scientific name to help you find the right tree. 243979, Member of the Somerset County Chamber of Commerce. Edge of the Woods Native Plant Nursery, LLC 2415 Route 100, Orefield, PA 18069 Tel: 610/395-2570 Fax: 610/395-3546 E-mail: info@edgeofthewoodsnursery.com Web: www.edgeofthewoodsnursery.com Container trees, shrubs, perennials, grasses, ferns, and aquatic plants. We have listed them by scientific name because it is a constant and does not vary region to region or person to person. Beginning in the 1760s, white pine logs 120 feet long and 4 feet in diameter (or larger) were cut in the hills of northeastern Pennsylvania, fastened together in huge rafts, and floated down the Delaware River to Philadelphia to provide masts for British ships. An introduced or non-native plant is one that has been brought into the state to become established in the wild. According to the Pennsylvania Department of Conservation & Natural Resources, there are approximately 2,100 native plants in Pennsylvania. Sort Guide order; Alphabetical by display name; Alphabetical by scientific name; Grid Card. However, current interpretation is to view the forest as a constantly shifting mosaic of patches created by individual tree falls and other small-scale change. Pennsylvania is full of sprawling forests that are home to some truly beautiful trees! However, that forest is a fairly recent product of the geological evolution of Pennsylvania's landscape. Doc ID: 1737092 Doc Name: sf-PSU TreeID Program.pdf; Error Message: Evidence exists that Native Americans managed vast areas of forest with fire to create open, gallery-type forests, encourage species they prized for food, and also to clear fields where they grew corn, beans and other crops. The current owner, a horticulturist, places the tree's age at approximately 700 years. As early successional species modify the environment by increasing the organic matter and shading the forest floor, more shade tolerant species invade. Menu. Fall foliage red to red orange. Altered ForestsImpact of pests and diseases—Pennsylvania's forests have also been profoundly affected by pests and diseases introduced from different parts of the world. A second wave of timber harvesting focused on hemlock bark, which was used in the leather tanning industry. Many others have arrived subsequently through deliberate or accidental introductions from other parts of the world. Learn More about PNPS. Trees with a more western distribution that reach Pennsylvania include Shumard oak, bur oak, shingle oak, and Kentucky coffee-tree. Learn More about PNPS. Influence of Native AmericansThe popular notion that European explorers and early settlers found a primeval forest free of human influence is inaccurate. Forest SuccessionWith few exceptions, rainfall, temperature, and soil conditions are suitable for the growth of trees throughout Pennsylvania. Others including corktree, bee-bee tree, callery pear, and mimosa are just beginning to show invasive tendencies. . What wasn't usable as lumber was treated by slow heating and distillation in "chemical factories" that produced acetate of lime, wood alcohol, wood tar, charcoal, and gases. Historically, the tree's lumber was important in making whiskey barrels and in ship building. Wood products including barrel staves, lath, shingles, boxes, and kindling wood were produced in hastily built factories located in temporary towns that sprang up throughout the northern tier of Pennsylvania. Rail beds were constructed up every hollow, far into forests unreachable when proximity to water was necessary to transport the logs to markets. ISA Certified Arborist® Commercial uses include flooring, whiskey barrels and boat building. Recent outbreaks of native insects such as elm spanworm, forest tent caterpillar, eastern tent caterpillar, and cherry scallop-shell moth have caused extensive tree death in some parts of the state. Native Trees and Shrubs for Pennsylvania Properties. Trees provide a renewable source of lumber, paper, nuts and chemicals. Too many deer—Over-abundant deer are a serious threat to the health of forests throughout the state. Appears as a tuft of grass. Native American populations were much larger before contact with Europeans introduced smallpox and other diseases; the extent of land impacted by their management was large. What is a Tree?Growth—Wood—Bark—Growth patterns—Short shoots and long shoots—JuvenilityLeaves—Fall leaf colorRoots—Root partnersFlowers, fruits, and seeds—ConifersAngiospermsPollination—-Seed dispersalClonal growth, Chapter 2. Riparian areas throughout the state, where periodic flooding is a limiting factor, are characterized by sycamore, silver maple, box-elder, American elm, red elm, black willow, green ash, black ash, black walnut, and red maple. The major forest types are northern hardwood forest, oak-hickory forest, Great Lakes beech-maple forest, and mixed mesophytic forest. During the railroad logging era, technology was present not only to harvest vast areas but also to utilize everything regardless of species or size. The cooling effect from transpiration and shading add to our comfort. Heart's Content, also in the Allegheny National Forest, has 100 acres of old growth hemlock-white pine forest. See more ideas about plants, native plants, perennials. The Pennsylvania Native Plant Society advocates conservation of native plants and their habitats and promotes the increased use of native plants in the landscape. Most of Pennsylvania’s forest lands fall into two types: Mixed oak forests cover about 54 percent of the commonwealth -- mostly in the south -- and include trees such as northern red oak, chestnut oak, shagbark hickory, red maple, and tulip poplar. The mixed mesophytic forests, which reach their greatest development in the Smoky Mountains, just reach southern Pennsylvania. However, short-term fencing does not allow forest shrubs or wildflowers, which never outgrow the reach of deer, to escape devastation. 6 Common Serviceberry—Amelanchier arborea— BF, PC,SY, LG, S Also know as Shadbush, this deciduous small tree grows from 15-25 ft. and is often found on rocky bluffs and upper slopes. Wild black cherry reaches its best development in this zone, especially in the northwestern part of the state. Trees listed as endangered in Pennsylvania are balsam poplar, beach plum, southern red oak, willow oak, Shumard oak, and showy mountain ash. Oak forests dominate the southern two-thirds of the state. Lancaster County’s Pennsylvania Native Tree and Shrub guide has been developed to increase the understanding and awareness of residents and officials of the environmental importance of native plant conservation and utilization. Pennsylvania's State Tree is quite versatile in the ways it can be used in the landscape. The gypsy moth, which spread into the state following its accidental release in eastern Massachusetts in 1869, reduced the importance of oaks through preferential feeding on members of the genus Quercus. Small scale garden/ landscape design and … Revealingly, later travelers in these same regions described a forested landscape apparently due to successional growth. 4 | Pennsylvania Native Trees and Shrubs Lancaster County Planning Commission Terms Alluvium soil: loose, unconsolidated (not cemented together into a solid rock), or sediments, eroded, deposited, and reshaped by water in some form in a non-marine setting. 2 Red Chokeberry--Aronia arbutifolia / Photinia pyrifoliea —E, J Native habitat: swamps, bogs, moist woods. Oak forests include red oak-mixed hardwood type on lower slopes where red and white oaks occur mixed with tuliptree, red maple, and hickories. Beech, sugar maple, and hemlock are so-called late successional trees because of their ability to grow and reproduce in low light conditions. Pennsylvania native plants are plants that thrived in the area before settlement. The Great Lakes beech-sugar maple forest is represented at the western end of the state. Home; About; Contact; Our Plants. With seasonal pruning it can be formed into an effective screen or hedge plant. Understory trees include flowering dogwood, pawpaw, umbrella magnolia, redbud, and witch-hazel. Height: 8-16". Dutch elm disease and dogwood anthracnose have taken their toll. Black or “Swamp” Ash. The white oak is a widespread forest tree in Pennsylvania and can reach 80 to 1,000 feet high. Others, such as chestnut and butternut, have become rare through the impact of insects or diseases. You can submit trees for consideration for champion status to this website. You can support us by becoming a member, making a donation, and/or volunteering . Fossil pollen and charcoal preserved in bogs and lake sediments all across the eastern half of North America, as well as many of the earliest written observations, record wide-scale use of fire by Native Americans to manage their landscape. In the southeastern corner of the state, in a narrow sliver of the Atlantic Coastal Plain physiographic province that parallels the Delaware River, coastal plain forests contain sweetgum, willow oak, southern red oak, and sweetbay magnolia. A Brief History of Penn's WoodsThe land that greeted the earliest Europeans to arrive in Pennsylvania was primarily forested, broken only by rivers, occasional wetlands, and clearings associated with Native American villages. We didn’t want to stop there! More non-native plants are introduced every year. American beech 4. It can be used as an accent plant or as a backdrop for small flowering trees. River birch occurs along rivers and streams in the eastern part of the state but not in the west. flowering dogwood 5. By 1904 the system held about half a million acres; today the state forests total 2.1 million acres. Cat/R/M/S. .". A small tree can bring beauty and diversity into your yard while taking up very little space. Thanks to all for your continued support of this program. Their banana like fruits add interest to the landscape. The Sacred Oak is currently the biggest tree in Berks County and is on the Pennsylvania Forestry Association's Champion Trees of Pennsylvania website. These forests have a dense layer of shrubs such as mountain laurel and black huckleberry. The oak-dominated forests that persist today, and native grasslands, most of which disappeared soon after Native Americans were ousted from the land, almost certainly owe their existence to traditions of large-scale burning among some groups of people for centuries or thousands of years before the arrival of Europeans. See more ideas about native plants, plants, wild flowers. : 15-20' Color: Yellow Bloom: April-May Plant Community: A Young trees-distinctive striped bark: Sugar Maple Moisture: Med Sun: Full/Part Hgt. Allegheny plum and pumpkin ash have been recommended for endangered status. Development of a system of forest reserves, now known as state forests, began in 1897 with the acquisition of abandoned cut-over lands that were sold at tax sales. The 6- to 9-inch-long leaves are a glossy green on top and pale green underneath. The famous Revolutionary War frigate USS Constitution, “Old Ironsides,” was made of White oak. 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